Two-State solution: The ever-evolving Israel-Palestine dynamics throughout the years

News Bulletin Reports
2023-10-09 | 11:20
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Two-State solution: The ever-evolving Israel-Palestine dynamics throughout the years
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3min
Two-State solution: The ever-evolving Israel-Palestine dynamics throughout the years

In the historic land of Palestine, the intertwined narratives of two states, Israel and Palestine, continue to evolve. The scenario of a two-state solution, first introduced by the United Nations in 1947, aimed to divide Palestine into three new entities:

1-    The first entity would be an Arab state, covering approximately 11,000 square kilometers, accounting for 42.3 percent of historical Palestine.

2-    The second entity would be a Jewish state, occupying about 15,000 square kilometers, representing 57.7 percent of historical Palestine.

3-    The third entity would encompass Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and adjacent territories under international supervision.

This decision ignited the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, during which Israel occupied Palestinian territories, exceeding the boundaries set by the UN partition plan. Israel seized 78 percent of historical Palestine during that time.

The situation remained unchanged until 1967, when the Six-Day War erupted between Israel on one side and Syria, Egypt, and Jordan on the other. Israel captured additional Arab territories, including the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Syrian Golan Heights. 

However, the UN Security Council Resolution 242 called for Israel's withdrawal from the territories it occupied beyond the UN-defined borders, but Israel did not comply.

In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords with Israel, mentioning the principles of a two-state solution, but implementation remained elusive. Wars persisted until the Oslo Accords of 1993 between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, but a formal resolution for a two-state solution was not declared.

In 1994, the Palestinian Authority initiated negotiations to establish an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip. These areas together constitute 22 percent of historical Palestine. 

Despite Palestinian negotiations, Israeli authorities often obstructed progress, intensifying settlement activities and refusing to vacate East Jerusalem, effectively undermining the two-state solution.

The Arab world presented a clear path to peace at the Beirut Summit. Then-Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz proposed the Beirut Initiative for Peace.

The 2002 Beirut Summit called for normalizing relations with Israel in exchange for a complete Israeli withdrawal from Arab territories to the 1967 borders. Israel rejected the proposal and continued its military activities.

In recent years, the two-state solution has resurfaced through initiatives like the Abraham Accords, signed between Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Israel, and Saudi Arabia's condition for any peace agreement with Israel, including establishing two states.

Will resolution come through the battlefield, or will the battlefield serve as leverage for an imminent peace?

News Bulletin Reports

Middle East News

Two-State

Solution

Evolving

Israel

Palestine

Dynamics

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